Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Haiti.

Impacts Water

Haiti relies on rain water to meet a majority of its water needs. The country’s 11 main drainage basins provide Haiti’s water supply and are themselves fed by a variety of interweaving streams carrying fresh water down from the mountains. The intermittent streams of these systems, particularly on the windward mountain slopes, are vulnerable to rainfall-induced flash floods during the rainy season. Roughly 92% of the country’s agriculture is rain-fed, and the bulk of existing irrigation infrastructure lies in disrepair and/or was severely damaged by the 2010 earthquake. The potential irrigable area is more than double the current irrigated area, and small irrigation schemes, which take advantage of rainwater-harvesting structures, could offer great potential for yield sustainability, particularly for rural subsistence farmers. Projected increases in future temperature, coupled with unreliable rainfall patterns, will necessitate the establishment of an efficient water management system in order to secure a reliable water source and prevent future shortages. 

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.