Country

Haiti

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Haiti.

Adaptation

In 2006, Haiti developed a National Action Plan for Adaptation (NAPA) and is implementing a set of activities arising from the NAPA and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). There are 10 priorities in Haiti’s adaptation strategy, including food security, community resilience in coastal areas, the fight against the destruction of biodiversity, and environmental degradation. Full implementation of the proposed actions requires technical capacity building as well as institutional, technological, and financial support. The total cost for adaptation amounts to approximately US $16.6 billion.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Develop and conserve fertile lands; improve irrigation and water storage (tanks); promote resistant crop varieties; integrate appropriate technologies; promote low impact crops in areas of low fertility; offer micro credits; work with community associations; implement weather early warning systems
  • Potential irrigable area is more than double the current irrigated area, and small irrigation schemes, which take advantage of rainwater harvesting structures, could offer great potential for yield sustainability, particularly for rural subsistence farmers.
  • Expand and renovate the country’s aging irrigation system to reduce the vulnerability of the critical agriculture sector.
  • ​​​​​Construct community cisterns; build new dams; reduce sedimentation; rehabilitate water points; increase quantity and quality of ground water reserves; increase technical capacity and establish network of observational points; improve drainage channels; repair aging public water system. 
  • Monitoring and long term ecological research.
  • Establish an assistance fund.
  • Forbid unregulated construction in high risk areas especially near the coast.
  • Construct protective barriers, harbor constructions.
  • Modernize tackle.

Gaps and Needs

  • Addressing deforestation and the success of reforestation projects will both be dependent on finding alternative sources of fuel wood for a growing population. Research must be focused on alternative fuel sources, including fast growing crops and the regulation of charcoal production, to restore the forest cover balance in the country.
  • Livelihood diversification is central to the reduction of Haiti’s vulnerability. Research and trials are needed to explore sustainable livelihood strategies which can be up-scaled by regions. Priority regions need to be identified, as for example, is the requirement for appropriate crops for steeply sloped land Cap-Haïtien, Fort-Liberite, and the basin of the Artibonito.
  • The potential irrigable area is more than double the current irrigated area, and small irrigation schemes, which take advantage of rainwater harvesting structures, could offer great potential for yield sustainability, particularly for rural subsistence farmers. Identification of priority areas for these investments needs to be based on current vulnerability assessments, which are themselves lacking.
  • A needs assessment for irrigation infrastructure, particularly for the agricultural areas east and west of Port-au-Prince, Saint-March, and Gonaïves is required.
  • Effective watershed restoration and management would proactively mitigate climate change impacts across diverse sectors, including water and agriculture, while also mitigating the effects of flooding, landslides, and droughts.
  • Address soil erosion, damaging floods and landslides by heavily promoting reforestation initiatives, particularly in the valleys and streams feeding Port-au-Prince, Saint-Marc and Gonaïves, where damages are substantial.
  • Securing livelihoods requires that disaster risk management activities are mainstreamed into all agricultural interventions, offering guidance and tools for local farmers to turn the tide on land degradation and engage in sustainable practices such as the planting of appropriate crops for steep sloped land, particularly around Cap-Haïtien, Fort-Liberite, and the basin of the Artibonito.
  • Promote livelihood diversification, particularly in the lowland plains where monocultures dominate and where significant malnutrition levels exist, including the areas around Les Cayes, Saint-Marc and Gonaïves, and Cap-Haïtien.
  • Improve irrigation infrastructure to principal agricultural areas including east and west of Port-au-Prince, Saint-March, and Gonaïves.
  • Downscaled climate information is available in Haiti from the Caribbean Climate Change Centre (the PRECIS model- UK Met Office), but this information has not been applied to the study of future impacts on the agriculture and water sectors. These efforts need to be supported and the information emerging from these studies disseminated in usable form to the development community.