Forty-three percent of Guatemala’s land is used for agriculture, 30% for pasture, 13% for cultivation, and 36% for forestry. The primary agricultural products include maize, rice, wheat, sorghum and beans. Commercial production includes coffee, bananas, rubber, sugarcane, and livestock. Climate variability and weather extremes such as increased temperature outside of the adapted range of crops adversely affect the duration and seasonality of crop cycles, often leading to crop failure. Water shortage and increased desertification due to droughts also hinder crop productivity. Indirectly, climate change will affect the incidence of pests and diseases, the cycling and availability of nutrients in the soil, and will lead to increased propensity for fires. A range of impacts on crop production are projected by the year 2030, including potential yield decreases of up to 27% for the lower areas of the Polochic river basin, dramatic yield decreases of up to 66% for beans in the valleys of Asuncion, Mita Jutiapa, and Monjas Jalapa, or modest yield increases of up to 3% for the farmlands of Amatitlán, San José Pinula, Palencia, and Villa Nueva.
This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.