Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ghana.

Impacts Water

Water is vital to Ghana’s socioeconomic growth and improvement. Impacts of climate change on water resources are likely to affect sectors such as energy, agriculture, and budding industry. Reductions in rainfall and runoff of about 20 and 30% are projected, respectively, with an observed increase in temperatures of about 1°C over a 30 year period. A 10% change in precipitation or a 1°C rise in temperature can cause a reduction in runoff of about 10%, although this varies according to the terrain and soil types. The reduction in river flows is projected between 15-20% and 30-40% for the years 2020 and 2050, respectively, in all the basins. Climate change can cause reduction in groundwater recharge between 5 and 22% by the year 2020. Reductions for the year 2050 are projected to be between 30 and 40%. Irrigation water demand and hydropower generation could be affected considerably by climate change.

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.