Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ghana.

Impacts Agriculture

The agriculture sector in Ghana is dominated by smallholder operations. The country also has some large farms and plantations, particularly for cocoa, oil palm, seed cotton, tobacco, coconut, bananas, and kola. In the 1970's, Ghana was virtually self-sufficient in the production of maize, cocoyam, cassava, and plantain. Since then, the agriculture sector has suffered many setbacks. Poor performance in food production can be attributed in part to external economic conditions, physical conditions (e.g., the drought and bushfires of 1982-1983), deficient agricultural policies, low priority given to food production in the past, inadequate support for the agricultural sector, and an emphasis on capital-intensive agriculture and industry to the neglect of the larger traditional farming sector. Climate change is likely to further exacerbate such trends according to analysis of projected climate change impact on cereal production. While drought-tolerant crops like millet may not be affected, cereals that are not tolerant to drought will see a reduction in yields.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.