Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ghana.


The Government of Ghana works to advance adaptation through the strategy outlined in their national climate change adaptation policy framework, recognizing that adaptation policies at the national level must take into account the diverse socio-ecological settings within the country, while devising area-specific interventions that can support the livelihoods of vulnerable populations. The UNDP Africa Adaptation Program, of which Ghana is one of the participating twenty-one countries, also supports direct country assistance to develop integrated adaptation actions and resilience plans. The country's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2016 has identified 11 programmes of actions that are supporting the various national adaptation policy and measures to mainstream adaptation into the national development framework. The prioritized sectors are agriculture, forestry, urban, health, water, and social development. An investment of $12.79 billion USD will be required for adaptation, 34% of which will be from domestic sources.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Education & outreach activities to make management practices more climate-resilient.
  • Switch to different cultivars.
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control.
  • Develop drought tolerant varieties.
  • Breed early or extra early maturing genotypes.
  • Educate farmers to plant in low population densities so as to reduce competition for scarce or limited soil moisture.
  • Shift national production centers for cereal production. Production of cereals may be shifted to areas where comparative advantage in production can be obtained.
  • Farm level adaptations such as shift in planting dates and modifying the amount and timing of fertilizer application may be adopted.
  • Change cropping sequences.
  • Implement economic adaptive measures such as plans to change national production of rice and other cereals.
  • Educate farmers on effective low input soil and water competition practices such as conservation tillage.
  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination.
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices.
  • Improve or develop water management practices.
  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system.
  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management plan.

Gaps and Needs

  • Superior efforts to translate forecasts and meteorological data into actionable information at the local level.
  • Develop and fortify dissemination and communication mechanisms available at all levels to manage early warnings, with critical attention to mainstreaming through people in the community regarded as trusted establishments.
  • There is a need to identify, collate, and interpret sub-national and local data and information needs with view to devising appropriate responses to the challenges posed by changing climate relative to national development plans and programs.
  • Introduce dynamic, long term planning mechanism to manage the inherent uncertainties of climate change.
  • Strengthen leadership capacities and institutional frameworks to manage climate change risks and opportunities in an integrated manner at the local and national levels.
  • Implement climate-resilient policies and measures in priority sectors.
  • Expand financing options to meet national adaptation costs at the local, national, sub-regional and regional levels.
  • Generate and share knowledge on adjusting national development processes to fully incorporate climate change risks and opportunities across all levels. In terms of current adaptation actions, although awareness raising and research projects have started, few projects with field implementation or community-based adaptation components are being undertaken.
  • Although Ghana’s National Communication highlights the vulnerability of its coastal zones, no projects are underway that appear to specifically address this sector.
  • Limited data from aerial photography obtained from the years 1974 and 1986 for some sections of the coastal area.
  • Satellite imagery.
  • Town sheets, which are maps with a scale of 1:2,500 for some urban centers along the coast; and limited ground truth data.
  • A flood plain mapping as part of early warning system, for mapping of risks to infrastructure especially in many of the large flood plains and urban areas which are likely to expand in size with increasing population and to support environmental impact assessments and guide new development plans.
  • To better inform disaster management response, modeling of extreme events under a changing climate, including localized definitions of critical climate thresholds that may exacerbate natural hazards, effects of multiple climate-related hazards and/or changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions particularly in coastal areas.
  • The establishment and maintenance of an observing and data management system to support decision-making in agriculture, water, energy and disaster management.