Federated States of Micronesia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Federated States of Micronesia.


FSM is particularly vulnerable to climate change and likely to suffer serious, adverse environmental, social and economic consequences. Indeed, it is already suffering from negative impacts associated with climate change, (e.g. saltwater intrusion from rising sea-levels damaging crops and freshwater supplies, increase in extreme weather events). Limited infrastructure, geographic remoteness and dependence on US aid exacerbate the country's vulnerability. FSM is particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise and an increase in extreme weather events such as storm surges given that the majority of its population, infrastructure and cultural sites are based in coastal areas. Furthermore, it is vulnerable to long dry spells resulting from El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • FSM is vulnerable to extreme weather events. In March 2015, Typhoon Maysak devastated the country, killing four people, wiping out 90% of key agricultural crops (banana, breadfruit and taro) in two of its states (Chuuk and Yap), affecting 29,000 people and causing $8.5 million in damages.
  • Sea salt deposition caused from tropical cyclones can devastate agriculture and cause significant corrosion affecting electricity infrastructure.
  • FSM’s fisheries, a significant part of its economy, are vulnerable to oceanic change such as increase in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification, both of which are predicted to increase from climate change.
  • No statistically significant changes in cyclone frequency have been detected. High inter-annual variability in occurrence makes measurement difficult over decadal time periods.
  • No statistically significant changes in drought and extreme precipitation events have been measured.
  • In its Second National Communication, FSM outlines how it is both establishing and strengthening its institutions to manage climate risk and disaster risk management, with plans and policies such as the Nationwide Climate Change Policy and the National Energy Policy.
  • The Nationwide Integrated Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Policy were put in place in 2013. Their focus was on adaptation at all levels (community, state, national) to reduce vulnerability to climate change and disaster risks.
  • In 2016, each state produced a Joint State Action Plan for Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change. These documents identify the vulnerabilities of each state, especially related to climate change and their approach to Disaster Risk Management.