Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ethiopia.

Impacts Water

Ethiopia has an abundance of water resources, including 12 river basins with groundwater potential of approximately 2.6 billion cubic meters. However, these are unevenly distributed across the country and much of the flow-waters flow across borders. To date, only a small proportion of these water resources have been developed for sectors such as hydropower, agriculture, water supply or sanitation. Projected trends of increased temperatures and precipitation patterns and intensity is expected to not only increase water stress and fresh water vulnerability, but also exacerbate existing non-climate stressors and challenge the country’s existing weak water governance. Increased temperatures and intense rainfall are putting greater pressure on the water and sanitation sector, with potential to further impact development gains. Read more from the the Ethiopia Climate Risk Country Profile

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.