Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ethiopia.

Impacts Agriculture

The agriculture sector plays a major role in Ethiopia’s economy, as of 2018, contributing 34% of GDP, about 85% of employment and approximately 75% of export commodity value (key exports such as coffee, livestock). The agriculture sector is dominated by small-scale, predominantly subsistence farmers dependent on rain-fed agriculture and traditional technologies. Extreme weather events related to climate change pose a serious challenge to further development of this sector. Drought, which in many cases leads to famines, severely reduces productivity, as do floods. The escalated occurrence of these disasters has rendered the country increasingly dependent on food aid. Increased temperatures are likely to lead to heat stress for crops with resulting in reduced quality and crop yields. Water scarcity is also expected to be a significant challenge for both agriculture and livestock production. According to Ethiopia’s National Adaptation Programme of Action, climate change will cause a shortening of the crop maturity period as well as a decrease in crop yields. Low water-storage capacity and high dependence on rainfed agriculture leave the agriculture sector even more vulnerable to climate risks. Read more from the Ethiopia Climate Risk Country Profile

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.