Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ethiopia.


Ethiopia published a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2007 that prioritized such measures as promoting crop insurance programs, strengthening drought and flood early warning systems, developing small-scale irrigation and water harvesting schemes, and improving range-land resource management practices in pastoral areas, among other focus areas. The country ratified the Paris Agreement in 2017. Its associated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) largely concentrates on reducing the vulnerability of livelihoods from droughts and floods. This includes improving agricultural productivity, ensuring uninterrupted water availability, enhancing irrigation systems, expanding renewable energy, building climate-resilient infrastructure, creating effective insurance schemes, and diversifying economic opportunities. It aims to carry out actions that improve the status of women and the welfare of children.

Key Adaptation Policies & Reports

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • ​​​​​​Introduce programs/projects that promote improved farming practices, drought resistant and early maturing crop varieties and supply inputs that increase crop yield and productivity.
  • Improve land management, moisture and soil conservation and flood control method in both the high and lowland areas.
  • Develop improved water use (water harvesting, small-scale irrigation, etc.) in drought prone areas to alleviate rain shortages that cause crop failure.
  • Improve farmers’ knowledge about proper use of weather information in carrying out agricultural activities to avoid risks of climate change.
  • Financing options for farmers should also be more accessible as well as the development of insurance schemes for farmers to protect against climate change. 
  • Introduce/support non-farm activities to increase alternative household income sources.
  • Improvements can also be made to the weather monitoring network and associated weather information systems, including the publication and distribution of agriculture-specific weather forecasts on a frequent basis (e.g. short-term and seasonal forecasts, monitoring of heavy rainfall, etc.).
  • Increase the scale of Safety Net Programs and Food Security Initiatives to support more vulnerable populations.
  • Implement research programs to inform priorities and implementation of renewable energy, as outlined in Ethiopia’s Climate-Resilient Green Economy Strategy (2011).
  • Expanding electric power generation from geothermal, wind and solar sources to minimize the adverse effects of droughts on predominantly hydroelectric energy sector.
  • Building additional dams and power stations to further develop energy generation potential from the same river flow.
  • Leapfrogging to modern and energy efficient technologies in transport, industry and building sectors.
  • Policies should be designed to promote private investment in renewable energies. 
  • Implement programs that help to prevent and control communicable diseases like malaria through community participation.
  • Organize and implement community- based health education programs to create the awareness and develop the knowledge about personal hygiene and environmental health management.
  • Develop and introduce surveillance systems, introduce methods of health prevention and vector control for health workers and the community.
  • Provide training programs to build the manpower capacity to improve the provision of health extension services at local level.
  • Support health research and community health services through the supply of drags and help the development of health facilities and infrastructure.
  • Undertake extensive health systems reviews to identify and prioritize highly vulnerable areas, population segments and to identify climate change sensitive diseases. 
  • Conduct water resources assessment studies (inventory of water quality and quantity, surface and underground water in time and space to develop proper use of available water resources).
  • Introduce improved methods of water conservation, storage and rational use.
  • Construction of small check dams and rainwater harvesting schemes to meet water supply for domestic and irrigation use.
  • Undertake soil conservation measures that help to reduce soil erosion and siltation and also protect the pollution of water sources.
  • Implement watershed management and water conservation programs and projects that promote local community participation.
  • Introduce methods to tackle and prevent flood protection, disaster prevention actions; and maintenance of flood control structures.
  • Increase coordination between urban planning with water resource management and climate change strategies. 

Gaps and Needs

  • Quantify the required international financial, technological and capacity building support for the implementation of vulnerability abatement measures up to and beyond 2030.
  • Identify and quantify the technical support needed for the adequate integration of climate change adaptation considerations into existing and planned policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects.
  • Identify the required technical support to quantify the cost of countering social, environmental and economic vulnerabilities that are likely to result from the adverse impacts of climate change.
  • Improve understanding of traditional mechanisms for coping with climate hazards, coupled with effectively designed strategies for dissemination of endogenous knowledge could support vulnerability reduction to the country’s population.
  • Improve understanding of the local dimensions of vulnerability is essential to develop appropriate adaptation measures that will mitigate these adverse consequences. This requires detailed vulnerability assessments to be conducted in the most vulnerable arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid lowland communities.
  • Enhance Ethiopia’s adaptive capacity through continuing investment in weather stations and expanding the country’s national hydro-meteorological monitoring system and improved networking for the measurement of climate parameters. 
  • Strengthen technical capacity to integrate climate-smart agriculture and climate change risk management into farmer’s and the wider agricultural sector. 
  • Coordinate all studies related to climate change through a National Research and Development Center on Climate Change.
  • Partnership and networking between different organizations working on climate change and disaster risk reduction has been very weak. More needs to be done to foster stronger partnerships.
  • Strengthening capacity to deal with the expansion and emergence of human, animal, crop and plant diseases known to occur in and around Ethiopia and in similar environments elsewhere and make available medicines in a sufficient quantity to deal with these diseases. 
  • Strengthening institutions to support agriculture and enhancing the skills and knowledge of male and female farmers will yield significant returns. The capacity of agricultural institutions is still weak, and the private sector is not yet strong enough to fill the gap. Moreover, there is a considerable gender imbalance. Women are less educated, not equally involved in decision making, and tend to benefit less from the overall development process.
  • Coordinate all studies related to climate change through a National Research and Development Center on Climate Change and ensure sectoral goals are developed in line with the National Environmental Strategy. 
  • Implementation of cross-sectoral climate-smart solutions at national and subnational levels. 
  • Collection and maintenance of baseline climate data for understanding the dimensions of vulnerability to develop appropriate adaptation measures that will mitigate the adverse impacts.
  • Improving availability and interpretation of climate data and services.
  • Improved information and access to data relevant to the deployment of renewable energy.
  • A lack of rainfall records impedes the proper analysis of historical trends in rainfall variability, which is particularly important since much of the rainfall in Ethiopia is brought about by localized, convective storms.
  • Flood forecasting and communication systems are weak and should be improved in those areas which are heavily affected by floods.
  • Improve technical capacity to analyze hydro-met data and project impacts across sectors. 
  • Establish institutional capacity for providing timely early warning systems. 
  • Development of early warning systems about dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena and climate risk management.