Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Egypt.

Impacts Water

The vulnerability of Egypt's water resources to climate change depends on Nile flows, rainfall, and ground water. Egypt is virtually rainless and depends entirely (80%) on the River Nile (whose source is outside of Egypt) to meet its water needs. Precipitation minimally impacts on the economy; therefore, climate impacts on water supply are indirect and may result from impacts on the principal sources of the River Nile. Also, the negative impact of climate change on rainfall rates and rain distribution across different regions negatively affects power generation from hydropower plants. (NDC, 2017)

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.