Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Egypt.

Impacts Agriculture

In the agricultural sector, climate change studies expect that the productivity of two major crops in Egypt (wheat and maize) will be reduced by 15% and 19%, respectively, by 2050. Losses in crop productivity are mainly attributed to frequent temperature increase, irrigation water deficit, and pests and plant disease. In addition, 12% to 15% of the most fertile arable land in Nile Delta is negatively affected by sea level rise and salt water intrusion. In terms of livestock production, current evidence shows that temperature rise leads to harmful heat stress, which negatively impacts livestock productivity. Climate change is expected to increase seawater temperature, shifting fish distributions northwards to live in deeper waters. In addition, increased water salinity in the coastal lakes in Egypt is expected to negatively affect fish species. (NDC, 2017)

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.