Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Egypt.


Egypt’s dependence on the Nile is making it work to ensure it adapts to reduced flows or increases the river flow. Egypt has outlined the adaptation actions in the Nationally Determined Contribution to promote resilience in water, agriculture, coastal zones, health, energy and tourism sectors. Changes in sowing seasons, use of hybrid seeds, awareness on rationing water use, improving cattle productivity and changing land use are all part of government effort to adapt to climate change. 

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Increase the efficiency of current agricultural water use, minimize irrigation water losses and increase the share of non-conventional water resources in agriculture. A 50%-75% increase in irrigation efficiency is being planned by implementing a nationwide project targeting improvements of on-farm irrigation systems in order to tackle projected losses from evapotranspiration and meet the higher irrigation demand under a changing climate.
  • Improve crop management systems by changing sowing dates. A study showed that a ten day delay may mitigate negative productivity by 10%. Changing crop patterns, as well as planting disease-tolerant strains, may offset climate-induced changes.
  • Measures for the careful selection and/or breeding of heat- and salinity-tolerant water conserving crops, as well as controlled environmental production methods that minimize water use.
  • Establish a strong information dissemination system regarding climate change and its impacts on agriculture targeting all growers, in order to assist them in developing appropriate adaptation measures.
  • Implement water conservation measures for the agricultural (e.g., drip irrigation) and industrial (e.g. recycling) sectors.
  • Maintain deep groundwater reservoirs as strategic storage for unforeseen developments in the Western Desert and Sinai Peninsula.
  • Redesign canal cross sections to reduce evaporation losses and improve drainage systems.
  • Progress in using renewable energy might reduce the future cost of desalination, which is one of the most expensive methods of substituting freshwater. This is suitable for use in the coastal areas where the Nile water supply is limited and use may be restricted to potable water supply for small-sized communities.
  • Enact programs for upgrading water quality and sanitation to minimize pollution, with high priority for recycling industrial and sewage waste.
  • Build catchments and dams for water collection in flash flood areas, such as the Sinai, Kena and the Red Sea.
  • Reactivate old rainwater catchments (Roman karma systems) on the northwestern coast and use for rainfed cultivation.
  • Investigate the role of solar water desalination plants and wind energy in making up for expected shortages.
  • Launch public awareness campaigns to disseminate information and test socioeconomic impacts of selected measures.
  • Physical improvements of irrigation systems and ensuring more efficient and reliable water delivery.
  • Encourage the exchange of data and information between Nile Basin countries to ensure sustainable flows in the Nile.
  • Enhance precipitation measurement networks in upstream countries of the Nile Basin as an early warning system for shortages.
  • Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) through redirecting growth away from sensitive lands and towards less vulnerable areas to reduce risks associated with sea level rise and vulnerability to other problems related to coastal zones.
  • Create wetlands in areas vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise in low-lying deltas, such as Lake Manzala and Lake Burullus.
  • Protect and rehabilitate natural sand dune systems, which constitute an important natural protection.
  • The Shore Protection Authority is considering protecting and enforcing the Mohamed Ali Wall as a first line of defense of the low lands south of Abu-Qir Bay.
  • Reinforce the international road along the Mediterranean coast to act as a second line of defense for the protection of the northern zone of the Delta.
  • Monitor, model and assess the impacts of salt water intrusion on soil salinity, coral reefs and tourism.
  • Establish a National Coastal Zone Management Committee to develop an ICZM plan.

Gaps and Needs

  • Technical and financial support to establish research programs with teams from existing universities and research institutes.
  • Advance research in the area of improved water-use efficiency and water demand management as no- regret solutions to cope with climate change.
  • Build capacity to modify and develop appropriate modeling, forecasting, decision support tools and software.
  • Build capacity on RCMs, modeling and early warning of extreme events and disasters, such as flash floods, dust storms and droughts.
  • Establish institutional capacities for monitoring coastal and sea surface temperature variations in the Red Sea, Lake Nasser and Lake Qarun.
  • Identify gaps in data and information in current climate data.
  • Establish proper systematic observation systems, monitoring networks and institutional information systems, ensure the availability of data and results to the scientific community and policy makers, and improve public awareness and involvement.