Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ecuador.

Impacts Agriculture

Approximately 27% of the country’s territory is used for agriculture and livestock, 22% for pasture, and 5% for cultivation. The sector is responsible for 6% of Ecuador's gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 6% of the total workforce. The main agricultural products in 2008 were sugarcane, bananas, milk, rice and maize, plantains, indigenous chicken meat, palm oil, and potatoes. Climate change is expected to impact agriculture in different ways depending on specific scenarios and crops. For the year 2030, it is likely that there will be a deficit in rice production of 3% to 60%, if no adaptation measures are pursued. For potatoes, one scenario predicts a shortage of 34%, while a more optimistic scenario projects a surplus in production. Soybeans would also be adversely impacted by climate change, while hard corn would benefit from it. Climate change is expected to increase variability and the incidence of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and intense rainfall events. This variability, on average, can be expected to negatively impact crop production. Increasing temperatures will cause greater evapotranspiration, which will lead to drier soil conditions in many areas.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.