A total of 53% of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture. Agriculture accounts for 14% of the country’s employment, and while the traditional agricultural exports of bananas, coffee, sugar, and beef are still the backbone of commodity export trade, coffee cultivation, primarily carried out in the Central region, is the key socioeconomic activity of the country, constituting 20% of gross domestic product and generating the bulk of employment. A potential relative increase in yield is expected in certain areas of the country due to increased precipitation and carbon dioxide fertilization. Both potatoes and beans might show a decrease in yields with projected increasing temperature and change of precipitation patterns, with temperature appearing to be the biggest driver in this change. The increase of environmental temperature might imply a rise in coffee yields, especially with an increase in maximum temperature of +2ºC. However, this increase might be limited to implementation of sustainable soil and water management, as increased temperatures should also increase evapotranspiration and water availability.
This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.