A majority of Cambodia's population relies on agriculture, with the sector accounting for more than 40% of the country's gross domestic product in recent years. Agriculture in Cambodia is mainly based on rainfed rice and mixed crops. Agricultural production is dependent on the annual flooding and recession of the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River, which bring fertile alluvium soils to the central plains. Only about 19.5 % (approximately 400,000 ha) of cultivated land in Cambodia benefits from irrigation. There is evidence of an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, including floods and droughts in Asia throughout the 20th century (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001). Cambodia has experienced increased rainfall in the wet season and prolonged drought in the dry season. The World Bank’s Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study shows that projected changes in temperature and precipitation will negatively affect current yields, with irrigated and rainfed wheat and irrigated rice projected to be most significantly affected.
This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.