Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Bangladesh.

Impacts Agriculture

The agriculture sector in Bangladesh is important for national food security and for providing raw materials to the manufacturing industry (e.g., cotton textiles, jute, frozen fish and seafood, tea processing, etc.), which is now becoming the lead contributor to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a 30- to 45-centimeter sea level rise could displace more than 35 million people from coastal districts in Bangladesh. The combined effects of temperatures and precipitation increase, CO2 fertilization, flooding, occasional seasonal droughts, and loss of arable land in coastal areas resulting from salt water intrusion are expected to result in declines in rice production of 3.9 percent each year, or a cumulative total of 80 million tons over 2005-2050. Under projected climate change scenarios, production of rice and wheat might drop by 8% and 32% respectively by 2050. Out of 2.85 million hectares of the coastal and offshore areas, about 1.2 million hectares of arable land are already affected by varying degrees of soil salinity. Increasing rainfall could further aggravate the problems facing Bangladesh’s agriculture.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.