Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Armenia.


As reported in Armenia’s GFDRR profile (2017) Armenia currently faces nationally significant economic damages from natural hazards (up to 4% of GDP). This, combined with its large (30%) population under the national poverty line, and its large population dependent on the agriculture sector for employment make adaptation a priority. Armenia’s NDC identifies seven sectors with particular adaptation needs: natural ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial), human health, water resources management, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry, energy, human settlements and infrastructure, and tourism. Across these sectors recurring adaptation work underway includes data capture and monitoring, early warning systems, design of ecosystem-based adaptation interventions, and infrastructure investment.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Creation of risk reduction infrastructure to protect agricultural production and reduce vulnerability to climatic variability
  • Prevention of crop and animal diseases and pests
  • Development, selection and cultivation of drought-resistant crop varieties including traditional varieties well adapted to local climate
  • Expansion and support for greenhouses
  • Soil conservation measures, including prevention of burning of grass and stubble
  • Develop new financial and insurance based mechanisms of support for community level adaptation
  • Enhance regional co-operation for management of transboundary adaptation issues
  • Focus on preparedness of the population for natural hazards and epidemiological situations
  • Implementation of early-warning systems for natural hazards and unfavourable weather conditions
  • Research and study of climate change implications for infectious disease incidence and risk management
  • Improvements in indoor comfort through insulation and air conditioning programmes as well as developing norms and standards in architectural design
  • Secure the water supply and sanitation systems, including providing water fountains in public spaces for heat wave events
  • A number of proposals are made in Armenia’s Third Communication to the UNFCCC to increase resilience to an uncertain water future
  • Improvements in administration and planning, particularly consideration of climate change in basin management plans and water permit issuing and development of hydrological reserves
  • Research and information gathering to assess climate change impacts on mountain region water resources, including snow stock, optimization and upgrade of the hydrological observation network, and assessment of climate change implications for groundwater stocks
  • Technical and economic projects to include construction of new small scale reservoirs, rehabilitation of existing infrastructure, and efficiency improvements in irrigation systems
  • Establishing minimum flows required to preserve ecosystems (environmental flows) and enforcing water withdrawal limits
  • Establish region co-operation for the management of transboundary water resources adaptation issues
  • Identification and mapping of risk areas exposed to natural hazards
  • Analysis of flood risk and communication channels for river valleys in the northern Marzes.
  • Installation of river bank protection and flood infrastructure as well as river basin flood protection interventions
  • Design and construction of landslide-protection dams and engineering solutions for the protection of settlements and infrastructure
  • Restoration of natural ecosystems and mitigation of human impacts
  • Insurance instruments providing compensation for direct damage and encouraging long-term disaster risk reduction steps

Gaps and Needs

  • Identification and mapping of human vulnerability to disease 
  • Improved reliability of downscaled climate models of Armenia and development of regional scenarios in collaboration with neighbors 
  • Comprehensive data on agricultural crop yields and grazing-land yields 
  • Broader monitoring and data collection of water flows 
  • Monitoring and data collection needed to record changes in natural ecosystems 
  • Data to underpin modelling of natural ecosystems 
  • A databank with detailed records of human disease incidence, particularly during hot seasons 
  • Hydro-meteorological observation stations are in need of restoration and upgrade to allow comprehensive monitoring of climate and particularly snow cover and snow melt 
  • In its Nationally Determined Contribution the Government of Armenia identifies its need for capacity strengthening, particularly professional training, in its institutions leading on climate change issues, specifically the Intergovernmental Council on Climate Change established by Decision Number 955 of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia 
  • The Government of Armenia additionally identifies the need for international and regional co-operation to address climate change issues 
  • Armenia’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC identifies additional capacity building needs across its key vulnerable sectors, including on data collection and monitoring, and development of nature-based interventions in the water resources, agriculture, and natural ecosystems sectors.