Agriculture is uniquely highly vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation, and increased intensity of hazards such as extreme rainfall, flooding, drought, and heat waves. Argentina is a global producer of agricultural products and has a historically strong agricultural sector with significant economic and cultural incidence in the country. Argentinean agriculture is considered to have a “prominent place on economic development” (NDC, 2016). Agriculture contributed value added of 5.6% as a percentage of GDP in 2017 and represented 54% of total employment in 2017. About 80% of employment in agriculture in 2017 was male. Differences in scale and socioeconomic considerations lead to different adaptive capacities. Under a business as usual scenario (RCP 8.5), temperatures are projected to increase and annual average precipitation is expected to increase in the north and decrease in the south. Climate change could improve crop yield for some crops while presenting hazards for others. Some crops or game can be sensitive to changes in temperature and could be affected by seasonal changes. Water scarcity is also of concern due to the high percentage of rain-fed agriculture and pasture land. The projected increases in extreme rainfall events and flooding also pose a threat to cropland and infrastructure. Water events have already changed the landscapes in provinces like Buenos Aires where some areas have become permanent water bodies (3rd National communication, 2015). Argentina’s Nationally Determined Contributions recognize highlight water resource management as a key need for adaptation and an essential way to improve existing practices and incorporate projected changes in hydrologic resources.
This section allows you to gain insights into climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators. These indicators give a comprehensive view on a country’s dependence on agriculture, on three fronts – economically, in terms of dependent population and land resources availability.